GENE NAMEcystatin C
The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteise inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions, where they appear to provide protective functions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes the most abundant extracellular inhibitor of cysteine proteases, which is found in high concentrations in biological fluids and is expressed in virtually all organs of the body. A mutation in this gene has been associated with amyloid angiopathy. Expression of this protein in vascular wall smooth muscle cells is severely reduced in both atherosclerotic and aneurysmal aortic lesions, establishing its role in vascular disease. In addition, this protein has been shown to have an antimicrobial function, inhibiting the replication of herpes simplex virus. Altertive splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding a single protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]


Complication Evidence PMID
Cardiovascular1. In , cystatin C level was significantly associated with insulin resistance and biomarkers reflecting inflammation independent of renal function. These components may have a role in addition to that of eGFR in explaining the link between cystatin C and CVD in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients19765773
Nephropathy1. Urinary biomarkers cystatin C [Cys C]) was significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic controls and could be used as markers of nephropathy at a very early stage even before the development of microalbuminuria, the current gold standard for early diagnosis.28671149
Atherosclerosis1. Serum cystatin C is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes29090609