GAPDH
LOCUS ID2597
GENE_SYMBOLGAPDH
GENE NAMEglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
SYNONYMNSG3PD, GAPD, HEL-S-162eP
CHROMOSOME12
HOMOLOGENE ID107053
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (D). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil D glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Retinopathy1. High glucose decreased GAPDH activity, expression, and nuclear translocation.In hyperglycemia, GAPDH in retinal microvascular cells is inhibited by its covalent modifications, and this activates multiple pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.19875652
Neuropathy1. PARP activation, on one hand, depletes its substrate, NAD+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and ATP formation. On the other hand, PARP activation in inhibition of GAPDH by poly-ADP-ribosylation. These processes in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications.15962096