GENE NAMEinterleukin 1 beta
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. The risk of developing DN is significantly enhanced in IL1B T allele carriers (dominant model, p=0.005) and in homozygotes (additive model, p=0.018) respectively. However, the recessive model for T allele (p=0.097) and the co-dominant model (p=0.085) produced non-significant . Considering that the additive model was significant (OR=2. 53, 95% CI=1.20-5.36) and the co-dominant is non-significant (OR=1.53, 95% CI=0.97-2. 40), the mode of inheritance is complete "additiveness," with the degree of dominance being h=0. The findings provided evidence that the IL1B C-511T variant might be associated with development of DN24839897
Cardiovascular1. We assessed at baseline, at the end of Phase A, and at the end of Phase B the levels of some new emerging biomarkers of cardiovascular risk includinghigh sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), adiponectin (ADN), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), myeloperoxidase (MPO), soluble CD40 ligand (sCDL40).26223257
Retinopathy1. The inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors IL1B, IL6, IL8, CCL2, EDN1, VEGF, and TNF are increased in the vitreous of PDR patients without an increase in IL-10. These add support to the role of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in the genesis of PDR22409294
Tuberculosis1. Tuberculosis with diabetes is characterized by elevated circulating levels of type 1 (IFN-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, and IL-2), type 2 (IL-5), and type 17 (IL-17A) cytokines but decreased circulating levels of IL-22. This was associated with increased systemic levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) but not type 1 IFNs.23987505