INS
LOCUS ID3630
GENE_SYMBOLINS
GENE NAMEinsulin
SYNONYMNSIDDM, ILPR, IRDN, IDDM1, IDDM2, MODY10
CHROMOSOME11
HOMOLOGENE ID173
microRNAsmiRNA33b/1627301461
GENE SUMMARY
After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptidesthe B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Cardiovascular1. Insulin treatment in these DM patients was associated with a significantly higher short and long-term adverse cardiovascular outcomes after PCI compared to those DM patients not treated by insulin therapy.26446829
Retinopathy1. Duration of diabetes, age at diagnosis, and insulin treatment were associated with increasing risk of incidence and progression of DR.26383994
Atherosclerosis1. Both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia have been thought to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, and to be a potent risk factor for cardiovascular event.26439243