PARP1
LOCUS ID142
GENE_SYMBOLPARP1
GENE NAMEpoly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1
SYNONYMNSPARP, PPOL, ADPRT, ARTD1, ADPRT1, PARP-1, ADPRT, 1, pADPRT
CHROMOSOME1
HOMOLOGENE ID1222
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on D and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery of cell from D damage. In addition, this enzyme may be the site of mutation in Fanconi anemia, and may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress activates the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP). PARP activation, on one hand, depletes its substrate, D+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and ATP formation. On the other hand, PARP activation in inhibition of GAPDH by poly-ADP-ribosylation. These processes in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications. Accordingly, hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC and AGE formation are prevented by inhibition of PARP activity. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction in rodent models of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy.15962096
Cardiovascular1. Furthermore, dysregulation of ADP-ribosylation has been linked to diseases including cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and heart failure, leading to the development of therapeutic PARP inhibitors, many of which are currently in clinical trials.26091340
Retinopathy1. These indicate that PARP plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. 2. The polymorphisms in the D repair genes PARP-1 and XRCC1 tended to associate significantly with DR. While Val762Ala polymorphism was associated with reduced susceptibility to DR, the Arg399Gln polymorphism contributed an elevated to risk for DR in South-Indian T2DM individuals.23652053, 24621175
Atherosclerosis1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is such an enzyme and dysfunctional PARP1 has been linked with the onset and development of various human diseases, including cancer, aging, traumatic brain injury, atherosclerosis, diabetes and inflammation.25940138