POMC
LOCUS ID5443
GENE_SYMBOLPOMC
GENE NAMEproopiomelanocortin
SYNONYMNSLPH, MSH, NPP, POC, ACTH, CLIP
CHROMOSOME2
HOMOLOGENE ID723
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene encodes a preproprotein that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational processing via cleavage by subtilisin-like enzymes known as prohormone convertases. There are eight potential cleavage sites within the preproprotein and, depending on tissue type and the available convertases, processing may yield as many as ten biologically active peptides involved in diverse cellular functions. The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary where four cleavage sites are used; adrenocorticotrophin, essential for normal steroidogenesis and the maintenance of normal adrenal weight, and lipotropin beta are the major end products. In other tissues, including the hypothalamus, placenta, and epithelium, all cleavage sites may be used, giving rise to peptides with roles in pain and energy homeostasis, melanocyte stimulation, and immune modulation. These include several distinct melanotropins, lipotropins, and endorphins that are contained within the adrenocorticotrophin and beta-lipotropin peptides. The antimicrobial melanotropin alpha peptide exhibits antibacterial and antifungal activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Cardiovascular1. IL-10 gene transfer upregulates arcuate POMC and ameliorates hyperphagia, obesity and diabetes by substituting for leptin.26435324
Neuropathy1. CSF beta-EP, but not POMC, concentrations were lower in the diabetic neuropathic patients overall (5.8 +/- 1.9 pmol/L) compared to the control subjects (7.6 +/- 2.2 pmol/L) (p < 0.05). CSF POMC showed no intergroup differences. However, POMC levels were 80-fold higher than those of beta-EP and should always be considered when interpreting immunoreactive beta-EP or other derivative peptide levels in CSF. We conclude that CSF beta-EP levels appear to be reduced in diabetic polyneuropathy but they do not relate to the presence of neuropathic pain. This might explain why opioid analgesics are of little, if any, help in alleviating diabetic neuropathic pain.7599354