GENE NAMEproteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 9
The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteise complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. linkage of the PSMD9 T2D risk SNPs with T2D-nephropathy, T2D-neuropathy, retinopathy, hypercholesterolemia, and macrovascular pathology.22015693
Retinopathy1. At the 12q24 locus, the Proteasome-Modulator 9 (PSMD9) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs74421874 [intervening sequence (IVS) 3+nt460-G>A], rs3825172 (IVS3+nt437-C>T) and rs14259 (E197G-A>G) are linked toT2D, depression, anxiety, maturity-onset-diabetes-of the young 3/MODY3, obesity, waist circumference, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, T2D-macrovascular disease, T2D-microvascular disease, T2D-neuropathy, T2D-carpal-tunnel syndrome, T2D-nephropathy, T2D-retinopathy and non-diabetic retinopathy.26166263
Neuropathy1. We report the linkage study of the PSMD9 SNPs [intervening sequence IVS3+nt460A/G, IVS3+nt437C/T and E197G] in Italian families with type 2 diabetes (T2D) neuropathy.21813292