PTPN1
LOCUS ID5770
GENE_SYMBOLPTPN1
GENE NAMEprotein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1
SYNONYMNSPTP1B
CHROMOSOME20
HOMOLOGENE ID2119
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. The third network portrays unique interactions PTPN1 with EGFR and CAV1 which could lead to an impaired vascular function in diabetic nephropathy condition.19997558
Cardiovascular1. In , our findings showed that overnutrition during early life induced obesity and insulin resistance in the adult offspring, and further increased heart size and impaired cardiac insulin sigling, putatively due to an increase in Ptpn1 activity.18599621
Atherosclerosis1. Acute (single dose) or chronic PTP1B inhibitor (trodusquemine) treatment of LDLR-/- mice decreased weight gain and adiposity, improved glucose homeostasis and attenuated atherosclerotic plaque formation ?- Our findings are the first to demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors could be used in prevention and reversal of atherosclerosis development and reduction in CVD risk28899902