TNF
LOCUS ID7124
GENE_SYMBOLTNF
GENE NAMEtumor necrosis factor
SYNONYMNSDIF, TNFA, TNFSF2, TNLG1F, TNF-alpha
CHROMOSOME6
HOMOLOGENE ID496
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. This study suggests that mast cells are involved in development of diabetic nephropathy. Through release of bioactive substances, such as tryptase, chymase, TGF-beta1, renin and TNF-alpha, into the tubular interstitium by degranulation, mast cells could promote renal inflammation and fibrosis, and thus contribute to diabetic nephropathy.22130579
Retinopathy1. Serum concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and VEGF have an effect on the development and progression of DR. 2. the level of TNF-alpha is highly correlated with severity of diabetic retinopathy and with nephropathy.21797106 , 24259948
Neuropathy1. The serum pro-inflammatory cytokines MIF, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of DM and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)19567096
Tuberculosis1. Induction of TNF through BCG vaccination or through selective agonism of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) has two desired cellular immune effects: 1) selective death of autoreactive T cells; and, 2) expansion of beneficial regulatory T cells (Tregs)28843039