AKT1
LOCUS ID207
GENE_SYMBOLAKT1
GENE NAMEv-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1
SYNONYMNSAKT, PKB, RAC, CWS6, PRKBA, PKB-ALPHA, RAC-ALPHA
CHROMOSOME14
HOMOLOGENE ID3785
microRNAsmiR-19427163678
GENE SUMMARY
The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. The AKT-mTOR pathway is activated in diabetic nephropathy. 2. Diabetes increased activated forms of AKT and mTOR both in glomeruli and podocyte. In diabetic rats, losartan decreased phosphorylated/activated forms of AKT (Thr308) and mTOR (Ser2448) in glomeruli but decreased only activated mTOR in podocytes.23456824
Cardiovascular1. GDF-15 protects heart, adipose tissue, and endothelial cells by inhibiting JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), Bad (Bcl-2-associated death promoter), and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and activating Smad, eNOS, PI3K, and AKT signaling pathways.26273671
Retinopathy1. PI3K-AKT signaling, L-VGCCs, and PMCA1 were down-regulated in obesity-induced prediabetic/early diabetic retinas, as well as in human DR retinas, suggesting that down-regulation of PI3K-AKT and impaired calcium homeostasis might contribute to the etiology of DR.25788653