GREM1
LOCUS ID26585
GENE_SYMBOLGREM1
GENE NAMEgremlin 1, DAN family BMP antagonist
SYNONYMNSDRM, HMPS, MPSH, PIG2, CRAC1, CRCS4, DAND2, HMPS1, IHG-2, DUP15q, C15DUPq, GREMLIN, CKTS
CHROMOSOME15
HOMOLOGENE ID8022
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-termil cystine knot with an eight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth. Altertively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. We identified 34 replicated genetic variants. Of these, 21 remained significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy in a random-effects meta-analysis. These variants were in or near the following genesACE, AKR1B1 (two variants), APOC1, APOE, EPO, NOS3 (two variants), HSPG2, VEGFA, FRMD3 (two variants), CARS (two variants), UNC13B, CPVL and CHN2, and GREM1, plus four variants not near genes. The odds ratios of associated genetic variants ranged from 0.48 to 1.70. Additional variants were detected in subgroup analysesELMO1 (Asians), CCR5 (Asians) and CNDP1 (type 2 diabetes).21127830