GENE NAMEperoxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha
Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. PPAR activation suppressed renal expression ofalpha(1D)-AR in diabetic nephropathy. 2. All three PPAR isoforms seem to play important roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes24772448 , 15504933
Cardiovascular1. While statins are irrefutably the first line of drugs for dyslipidemia management in patients with residual CV risk while on a statin, PPAR alpha/gamma agonists have been found to be of substantial benefit.25926748
Atherosclerosis1. Dysregulation of macrophage PPAR expression in type 2 diabetes may contribute, by altering arterial lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, to the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with diabetes. 2. BAC-Retn mice developed severe hepatic insulin resistance under chronic endotoxemia, accompanied by increased inflammatory responses in liver and skeletal muscle.Human resistin may link insulin resistance to inflammatory diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. 3. We hypothesized that genetic variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway genes, important in diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, would be associated with extent of CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus. 4. Thus in addition to the treatment of type II diabetes, PPARgamma agonists can be potentially employed for the treatment of atherosclerosis in general population12682906 , 21282361 , 10634806
Dyslipidemia1. In addition to helping to correct dyslipidemia, PPAR? agonists may hold promise as a therapy for patients with cholestatic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and/or type 2 diabetes.