RAF1
LOCUS ID5894
GENE_SYMBOLRAF1
GENE NAMERaf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
SYNONYMNSNS5, CRAF, Raf-1, c-Raf, CMD1NN
CHROMOSOME3
HOMOLOGENE ID48145
microRNAsNANA
GENE SUMMARY
This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OBSERVATIONS

Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells.18834896
Retinopathy1. Diabetes increased the gene expression of Ras-Raf-1 downstream signaling protein MAP kinase by over 50%, and that of nuclear transcriptional factor by 25-30%. This activation of H-Ras in retinal microvessels implies that its signaling pathway, in part, could be contributing to the microvascular pathology characteristic of diabetic retinopathy.18514235