GENE NAMEglucagon
The protein encoded by this gene is actually a preproprotein that is cleaved into four distinct mature peptides. One of these, glucagon, is a pancreatic hormone that counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glucagon is a ligand for a specific G-protein linked receptor whose signalling pathway controls cell proliferation. Two of the other peptides are secreted from gut endocrine cells and promote nutrient absorption through distinct mec


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. Patients with Type 2 diabetic nephropathy have worsened islet alpha and beta cell function. Therefore medications based on the regulation of glucagon secretion may improve glycemic control and also be beneficial for delaying the progress of diabetic nephropathy26908298
Cardiovascular1. The aim of this mixed treatment comparison (MTC) meta-analysis was to determine glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists' effects on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). ?-CONCLUSION: Glucagon like peptide-1 therapy was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular (CV) death. However, GLP-1 agonists seem to have a safety profile comparable to placebo in terms of reducing non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke events, and rates of HF hospitalisation.29887418
Retinopathy1. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression has previously been demonstrated in the retina in animals and humans; however, antibodies used to detect expression have been documented to be non-specific and fail to detect the GLP-1R using immunohistochemistry (IHC), a problem common for many G-protein coupled receptors.29707863
Psoriasis1. Intriguingly, recent studies describe that GLP-1 may convey anti-inflammatory effects in addition to its effects on glucose homeostasis. Also, GLP-1 reduces appetite and gastrointestinal motility including gastric emptying, which reduces food intake and leads to weight loss. Thus, both a direct anti-inflammatory effect of GLP-1 as well as an indirect effect through weight loss could contribute to improvement in psoriasis.21968278
Insulin resistance and inflammation1. GLP-1 analogues pleiotropic effects proved to be efficacious in T2DM subjects not only reducing liver steatosis and ameliorating NAFLD and NASH, but also in lowering plasma glucose and liver inflammation, improving cardiac function and protecting from kidney dysfunction.30359962