GENE NAMEinsulin receptor sub
This gene encodes the insulin receptor substrate 2, a cytoplasmic signaling molecule that mediates effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and other cytokines by acting as a molecular adaptor between diverse receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream effectors. The product of this gene is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation, as well as by an interleukin 4 receptor-associated kinase in response to IL4 treatment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. The specific up-regulation of IRS2 in the kidney tubules of DN patients also indicates a novel role for IRS2 as a marker and/or mediator of human DN progression.23617393
Atherosclerosis1. Systemic insulin resistance and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with decreased IRS2 and TIMP3 expression in circulating monocytes.21984580
Neuropathy1. Phosphorylation of Ser(731)IRS2 was significantly elevated in DRG neurons from type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice. Additionally, Akt activation and neurite outgrowth in response to insulin were significantly decreased in DRG cultures from diabetic ob/ob mice. These suggest that DRG neurons express IRS proteins that are altered by diabetes similar to other peripheral tissues, and insulin signaling downstream of the insulin receptor may be impaired in sensory neurons and contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy.21754917
Insulin resistance and Inflammation1. The inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through the suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and overnutrition, may act as the underlying mechanisms for the metabolic syndrome in humans.24281010