GENE NAMEtoll-like receptor 4
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family which plays a fundamental role in pathogen recognition and activation of inte immunity. TLRs are highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and share structural and functional similarities. They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are expressed on infectious agents and mediate the production of cytokines necessary for the development of effective immunity. The various TLRs exhibit different pat


Complication Evidence PMID
Nephropathy1. TLR4 may activate the immuno-inflammatory reactions to play a role in the occurrence and development of the diabetic nephropathy.23790335
Retinopathy1. Our results suggest an association between the Asp299Gly polymorphism of the TLR4 gene and early onset of DR in the DM2 patients19135114
Atherosclerosis1. AGE-LDL activates a TLR4-mediated signaling pathway, thus inducing proinflammatory cytokine production. This mechanism may partly explain the increased risk of atherosclerosis observed in diabetics.18818414
Neuropathy1. In type 2 diabetic patients, however, heterozygote carriers of the Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genotypes had a significantly reduced prevalence of diabetic neuropathy (odds ratio 0.35 [95% CI 0.19-0.61]; P = 0.0002); 2. The present study found that patients with T2DM and DPN had increased TLR4 expression in monocytes compared with control subjects. Expression of TLR4 in monocytes was significantly higher in patients with DPN compared with the T2DM group. These results suggested that increased expression of TLR4 in monocytes could be linked to systemic inflammation in peripheral neuropathy in T2DM.14693986
Tuberculosis1. Results showed that the serum TLR4 content of the T2DMTB group was significantly lower than that of the T2DM group (p < 0.05).14693986
Cardiovascular1. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.14693986
Insulin resistance and inflammation1. The expression of TLR4 in bone marrow-derived cells only, but not in non-bone marrow-derived tissues only, was a determining factor in the induction of diet-induced insulin resistance, which was accompanied by an increased expression of inflammatory markers in both white adipose tissue and liver as well as increased liver steatosis and increased expression of gluconeogenic enzymes.27123010